• Agriculturally cultivated in five areas, namely Mpumalanga, Northern Province, Northern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and the Northwest.
• It is grown under irrigation as well as dry land conditions.
General: Cotton is a perennial, herbaceous shrub, 0,5 - 1 m tall,
Flowers: It has white to yellow flowers, which develop into smooth fruits that split open if mature.
Seeds: The fibrous hairs on the seeds, 1-6 cm long, consist mainly of cellulose.
Seeds have hard lignin-like cortex and white kernel with small spherical or ovoid pigment glands (yellow to purple), which contain 15 or more pigments of which the predominant one is gossypol. Endotheliotoxic:• Uncouples oxidative phosphorylation.• Causes loss of appetite and loss of weight.
Most common effect cardiac irregularity - death due to circulatory failure.
• Weakness, dyspnoea.
• Emaciated, stunted, pot-bellied animals.
Poultry - results in green discolouration of outer layer of yolk and pink whites.
Men - decreased spermatogenesis and decreased sperm motility.
• Pigs and pre-ruminants are affected
• Monogastric animals are most susceptible and adult ruminants are least susceptible.
• Ruminats are least susceptible as gossypol forms complexes with protein in the rumen, rendering gossypol non-toxic.
• Heart affected - degeneration of myocardium, thus dilatation and enlargement of heart may be seen.
• Generalised oedema: pulmonary oedema and foam in trachea, hydropericardium, ascites,subcutaneous oedema.
• Cyanotic induration of liver.
• Vit A (anti-Vit A effect seen in cattle).
• Vit B Co injection, non-ruminants especially.
• High protein diet to bind gossypol in rumen.
Colour photos. Final web-ready size: JPEG. Photo 1: 15.6 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 2: 56.2 kb, 96 ppi; Photo 3: 16 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 4: 7.3 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 5: 13.7 kb, 72 ppi; Photo 6: 17.8 kb, 300 ppi. Original TIFF file housed at the Dept. of Paraclinical Sciences, Section Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Pretoria.