Livestock production is a fundamental source of revenue and nutrition, wherein cattle-farming constitutes one of the major agricultural industries. Vectors and vector-borne diseases constitute one of the major factors that decrease the livelihood of all farming communities, more so in resource-poor communities and developing countries. Understanding the immunological responses during tick infestation in cattle is instrumental in the development of novel and improved tick control strategies, such as vaccines. In this study, gene expression patterns were compared within the lymph nodes of three cattle breeds at different life stages of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus. For Bonsmara (5/8Bos taurus indicus × 3/8B. t. taurus) cattle specifically, some 183 genes were found to be differentially expressed within the lymph nodes during larval and adult tick feeding, relative to uninfested cattle. Overall, the data provides evidence for a transcriptional regulatory network that is activated during immature tick infestation, but is down-regulated towards basal transcriptional levels when adult ticks are feeding. Specific processes in the lymph nodes of Bonsmara cattle were found to be differentially regulated on a transcriptional level. These include: (1) Leukocyte recruitment to the lymph node via chemokines and chemotaxis, (2) Trans-endothelial and intranodal movement on the reticular network, (3) Active regulation of cellular transcription and translation in the lymph node (including leukocyte associated cellular regulatory networks) and (4) Chemokine receptors regulating the movement of cells out of the lymph node. This work provides a first transcriptome analysis of bovine lymph node responses in tick-infested cattle. Findings show a dynamic immune response to tick infestation for the Bonsmara cattle breed, and that suppression of the maturation of the cattle hosts' immunity is especially evident during the larval feeding stages.
Owen, N.C.; Du Toit, R.M.; Howell, P.G.; Jansen B.C.(Pretoria : The Government Printer, 1965)
Bluetongue viruses were isolated from five clinically healthy bovines exposed to
natural infection over two consecutive bluetongue seasons. The isolated viruses
were typed by serum-virus neutralization and found to ...
Du Preez, J.H.; Hattingh, P.J.; Giesecke, W.H.; Eisenberg, B.E.; Verwoerd, Daniel Wynand(Published by the Government Printer, Pretoria., 1990)
Temperature-humidity index (THI) values applicable to South Africa and Namibia have been established during this investigation for each month of the year by means of computerized modelling and mapping techniques.
The data ...
In Northern Sotho, a separate colour lexicon is distinguished, containing terms which are believed to be used
exclusively as colour terms to describe not only the colours, but also the colour patterning found among ...