Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a transboundary animal disease that has a major impact on livestock production, regional and international trade and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in endemic settings. Many livestock diseases are transmitted through direct contact between animals, and thus between herds and flocks through animal movements. In this study, we described the pattern of goat movements among smallholder farmers within a communal farming area in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 116 respondents, and separate 13 focus group discussions employing participatory mapping and semi-structured interviews were conducted among smallholder farmers. Overall, 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16 – 31) of questionnaire respondents indicated moving new animals into their holdings during the previous 12 months while 56% (95% CI: 47 – 65) reported moving animals out of the holdings during the same timeframe. A total of 134 participants attended the focus group discussions with 68% (91/134) being male and 32% (43/134) female. Data from the study reported 37 nodes and 78 ties with an overall network density of 0.059 (SD 0.2) across the study area. Four locations within the (former) FMD-free zone of the country had connections with movement of goats from the study area. Furthermore, 60% (95% CI: 51 – 69) of farmers were ignorant of the need to obtain official veterinary movement permits for goats. These animal movements put the country at risk of future FMD outbreaks within the free zone. We recommend that the relevant authorities implement risk-based control measures to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.