In recent centuries, the mosquito Aedes aegypti has spread into most urban areas throughout the tropics. This species is considered the main vector of the chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses and causes major public health issues. The aim of this study is to investigate the relative influence of biotic and abiotic parameters on immature populations of Ae. aegypti. During a one-year-long field experiment, we monitored 108 macroinvertebrate aquatic communities inhabiting four types of water containers across three different urbanized sites in a Neotropical city. A multimodel inference approach revealed that, in addition to abiotic parameters, biotic interactions with aquatic organisms had an important influence on the abundance of Ae. aegypti and that the urbanized site considered influences the outcomes of the interactions. Controphic species other than mosquitoes aided Ae. aegypti development, suggesting a mechanism of facilitation through a chain of processes. However, the abundance of Ae. aegypti was lowered by competition with native mosquito species in the slightly urbanized area and by predation in more urbanized areas. Competitive displacement and reduction, as well as predation by native aquatic organisms, can be considered a form of ecosystem service. The conservation and/or augmentation of natural enemies should improve the short- and long-term success of incompatible and/or sterile insect techniques, thus opening up perspectives for the future of mosquito management.