Calf immunity, growth and puberty are important factors affecting heifer productivity. The first four weeks of age are critical for reducing calf morbidity and mortality. It is well documented that colostrum is paramount to neonatal nutrition and passive immunity, however, adaptation to extra-uterine life starts early during embryonic development. Therefore, successful calf rearing strategies are underpinned by adequate maternal nutrition during gestation, and good colostrum management. A deeper understanding of these interactions paves the way for developing strategies to improve immune responses to environmental pathogens, optimal growth and timely attainment of puberty in calves. The literature reviewed here shows that there are opportunities to enhance the future performance of cattle paying attention to the interaction of nutrition and immunity at each developmental stage. Therefore, the objective of this review is to give the reader an overview of interactions between immunity, growth and puberty in dairy calves and highlight how these influence future performances.