This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, nutritional and cytogenotoxic potentials of Aloe barbadensis (AB) root extract. The antimicrobial activity of AB was determined using agar well diffusion and microdilution techniques while the nutritional analyses were done using standard procedures. The antioxidant activities were evaluated via the lipid peroxidation, 1, 1, diphenyl-2-picrlhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP) assays. The cytogenotoxic effects were assessed using the Allium cepa and Sorghum bicolor assays. Five test bacterial isolates: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) were found susceptible to the ethanolic extract of AB root. The extract at 50 mg/ml recorded the highest zone of inhibition (25.00±1.73 mm) against S. saprophyticus. The nutritional analysis gave a nitrogen free extract value of 24.66%, 30.05% crude fibre, 15.14 mg/kg of Na, 2.01 mg/kg of Mg, 37.42 mg/kg of Fe and 0.02 mg.kg of Zn. The fractions had antiradical activity in the lipid peroxidation, DPPH and FRAP assays. The ethanolic extract induced some chromosomal aberrations in the root tip cells of Allium cepa. The ethanolic extract had the highest (0.13±0.09 mm) antiproliferative activity at 20 mg/kg in the Sorghum bicolor assay. The relatively high nutrient content may be a possible mechanism for the aphrodisiac property of the plant. The results of the biological activities of AB root is an indication of its potential use in drug development for the management of infectious diseases and other related ailments.