Health risk assessment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound trace elements in Thohoyandou, South Africa

Show simple item record Edlund, Karl Kilbo Killman, Felicia Molnár, Peter Boman, Johan Stockfelt, Leo Wichmann, Janine 2021-05-14T05:37:39Z 2021-05-14T05:37:39Z 2021-02
dc.description.abstract We assessed the health risks of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) ambient air pollution and its trace elemental components in a rural South African community. Air pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. PM2.5 samples were previously collected, April 2017 to April 2018, and PM2.5 mass determined. The filters were analyzed for chemical composition. The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) health risk assessment method was applied. Reference doses were calculated from the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, South African National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and US EPA reference concentrations. Despite relatively moderate levels of PM2.5 the health risks were substantial, especially for infants and children. The average annual PM2.5 concentration was 11 µg/m3 , which is above WHO guidelines, but below South African NAAQS. Adults were exposed to health risks from PM2.5 during May to October, whereas infants and children were exposed to risk throughout the year. Particle-bound nickel posed both non-cancer and cancer risks. We conclude that PM2.5 poses health risks in Thohoyandou, despite levels being compliant with yearly South African NAAQS. The results indicate that air quality standards need to be tightened and PM2.5 levels lowered in South Africa. en_ZA
dc.description.department School of Health Systems and Public Health (SHSPH) en_ZA
dc.description.librarian pm2021 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Axel Lennart Larsson travel grant, Swedish state, ALF-agreement and South African National Research Foundation. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Edlund, K.K.; Killman, F.; Molnár, P.; Boman, J.; Stockfelt, L.; Wichmann, J. Health Risk Assessment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-Bound Trace Elements in Thohoyandou, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021, 18, 1359. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1660-4601 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.3390/ijerph18031359
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher MDPI en_ZA
dc.rights © 2021 by the authors. Licensee: MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. en_ZA
dc.subject Air pollution en_ZA
dc.subject Health risk assessment en_ZA
dc.subject Children en_ZA
dc.subject Trace elements en_ZA
dc.subject Particulate matter (PM2.5) en_ZA
dc.subject South Africa (SA) en_ZA
dc.title Health risk assessment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound trace elements in Thohoyandou, South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record