Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter, source apportionment and long-range transport clusters in Thohoyandou, South Africa

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dc.contributor.author Novela, Rirhandzu J.
dc.contributor.author Gitari, Wilson M.
dc.contributor.author Chikoore, Hector
dc.contributor.author Molnar, Peter
dc.contributor.author Mudzielwana, Rabelani
dc.contributor.author Wichmann, Janine
dc.date.accessioned 2021-03-26T10:40:42Z
dc.date.available 2021-03-26T10:40:42Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.description.abstract This paper presents a chemical characterization of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air masses passing through Thohoyandou and further determines their sources. PM2.5 samples were collected and quantified using the gravimetric method. X-ray fluorescence, smoke stain reflectometer, optical transmissometer and scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical and morphological composition of the particulate matter. The source apportionment was done using principal component analysis while the HYSPLIT model was used to depict the long-range transport clusters. The mean of concentrations of PM2.5, soot, black carbon and UVPM were 10.9 μg/m3 , 0.69x10-5 m-1, 1.22 μg/m3 and 1.40 μg/m3 , respectively. A total of 24 elements were detected in the PM2.5 with Pd, Sn, Sb, Mg, Al, and Si being the dominant elements. SEM-EDS have shown the presence of irregular, flat and spherical particles which is associated with crustal material and industrial emissions. Source apportionment analysis revealed six major sources of PM2.5 in Thohoyandou namely, crustal materials, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions, urban emissions, fossil fuel combustion and fugitive-Pd. Air parcels that pass through Thohoyandou were clustered into four groupings. The major pathways were from the SW Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and inland trajectories. Clusters from the ocean are associated with low concentration, while inland clusters are associated with high concentration of PM2.5. The PM2.5 levels occasionally exceeded the daily WHO guideline (25 μg/m3 ) in Thohoyandou and the sources of PM2.5 extend beyond the borders. This study recommends that further studies need to be carried out to assess the health impacts of PM2.5 in Thohoyandou. en_ZA
dc.description.department School of Health Systems and Public Health (SHSPH) en_ZA
dc.description.librarian pm2021 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation, South African Department of Higher Education and Training Research incentive funds and University of Venda RPC. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.minervamedica.it/it/riviste/chirurgia/index.php en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Novela, R.J., Gitari, W.M., Chikoore, H. et al. 2020, 'Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter, source apportionment and long-range transport clusters in Thohoyandou, South Africa', Clean Air Journal, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 1-10. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1017-1703 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 2410-972X (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.17159/caj/2020/30/2.8735
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/79125
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Edizioni Minerva Medica en_ZA
dc.rights © 2020. The Author(s). Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. en_ZA
dc.subject PM2.5 characterization en_ZA
dc.subject Source apportionment en_ZA
dc.subject Long range clusters en_ZA
dc.subject Principal component analysis en_ZA
dc.subject Backward trajectories en_ZA
dc.subject Particulate matter (PM2.5) en_ZA
dc.title Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter, source apportionment and long-range transport clusters in Thohoyandou, South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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