Induction of systemic tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] against drought stress was studied by screening a large collection of rhizobacterial isolates for their potential to exhibit this essential plant growth-promoting trait. This was done by means of a greenhouse assay that measured the relative change in both plant height and -biomass (roots and shoots) between rhizobacteria-primed versus non-primed (naïve) plants under drought stress conditions. In order to elucidate the metabolomic changes in S. bicolor that conferred the drought stress tolerance after treatment (priming) with selected isolates, untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS)-based metabolomics was carried out. Intracellular metabolites were methanol-extracted from rhizobacteria-primed and naïve S. bicolor roots and shoots. Extracts were analysed on a UHPLC-HDMS system and the generated data were chemometrically mined to determine signatory metabolic profiles and bio-markers related to induced systemic tolerance. The metabolomic results showed significant treatment-related differential metabolic reprogramming between rhizobacteria-primed and naïve plants, correlating to the ability of the selected isolates to protect S. bicolor against drought stress. The selected isolates, identified by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing as members of the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, were screened for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity by means of an in vitro assay and the presence of the acdS gene was subsequently confirmed by PCR for strain N66 (Pseudomonas sp.). The underlying key metabolic changes in the enhanced drought stress tolerance observed in rhizobacteria-primed S. bicolor plants included (1) augmented antioxidant capacity; (2) growth promotion and root architecture modification as a result of the upregulation of the hormones gibberellic acid, indole acetic acid and cytokinin; (3) the early activation of induce systemic tolerance through the signalling hormones brassinolides, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid and signalling molecules sphingosine and psychosine; (4) the production of the osmolytes proline, glutamic acid and choline; (5) the production of the epicuticular wax docosanoic acid and (6) ACC deaminase activity resulting in lowered ethylene levels. These results unravelled key molecular details underlying the PGPR-induced systemic tolerance in sorghum plants, providing insights for the plant priming for abiotic stress.