Monolithic carbon scaffolds were obtained by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose. First, microcrystalline cellulose was compounded, at a 1:1 mass ratio, with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, choline chloride or a mixture of the two ionic liquids. Test bars were extrusion-molded and the ionic liquid removed by leaching with water. The porous cellulose bars were carbonized at 800 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The Raman ID/IG peak intensity ratios ranged from 0.74 to unity confirming the formation of amorphous carbon. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a highly porous structure consisting of both micro- and nanopores.