This thesis contributes to the understanding of the most effective ways to promote sustainable and inclusive development. It uses public private partnerships in infrastructure projects as a case study for demonstrating that a holistic approach of development that incorporates human rights considerations is needed to achieve sustainable and inclusive development outcomes. The dissertation explores different notions of development and how they have influenced the regulatory frameworks for and the structuring of Infrastructure projects and their effectiveness in achieving their intended development outcomes. It demonstrates that public-private partnerships add several layers of complexity to infrastructure finance, planning and implementation, and that they can result in a significant gap between the project’s intended and actual developmental outcomes. The thesis proposes that governments and other project sponsors use human rights impact assessments (HRIAs) to address the challenges created by public-private partnerships in infrastructure projects and shows that this will help increase the possibility that infrastructure PPPs lead to sustainable development outcomes. The thesis also analyses a number of established human rights impact assessment methodologies and proposes a new approach that is specifically designed for the particular context of public-private partnerships in infrastructure projects.