Chemo-mechanical preparation and the removal of
infected dentine in order to eliminate microorganisms
and avoid apical periodontitis remain the main objectives
in endodontic treatment.
Mechanical preparation of the root canal system not
only provides the space for obturation but also facilitates
disinfection of the root canal system through the use of
Iatrogenic preparation errors affect the root canal anatomy
and can result in apical canal transportation,
uncentered preparations, ledge formation, or perforations.
These errors are all associated with inferior outcomes of
In this paper, the authors will discuss a review of the
literature which considers some of these procedural
errors and, using clinical case studies, will illustrate the
appropriate clinical management when errors do occur.