Assessing the effects of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcomes using cross-sectional data in Malawi

Show simple item record Twabi, Halima S. Manda, S.O.M. (Samuel) Small, Dylan S. 2020-10-07T05:45:00Z 2020-10-07T05:45:00Z 2020-06
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that maternal HIV infection is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and perinatal mortality. However, the association is conflicted with the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the pregnancy outcomes and it remains unexamined. If the association is confirmed then it would guide policy makers towards more effective prevention of mother to child HIV transmission interventions. Using methods for matching possible confounders, the objectives of the study were to assess the effect of maternal HIV infection on birth weight and perinatal mortality and to investigate the effect of ART on these two pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected women. METHODS: Data on 4111 and 4759 children, born within five years of the 2010 and 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys (MDHS) respectively, whose mothers had an HIV test result, were analysed. A best balancing method was chosen from a set of covariate balance methods namely, the 1:1 nearest neighbour (NN) matching, matching on the propensity score (PS) and inverse weighting on the PS. HIV and ART data were only available in the MDHS 2010, permitting an assessment of the moderating effect of ART on the association between maternal HIV infection and birth weight and perinatal mortality. RESULTS: The overall average birth weight was 3227.9g (95% CI: 3206.4, 3249.5) in 2010 and 3226.4g (95%: 3205.6, 3247.2) in 2015-16 and perinatal mortality was 3.8% (95%: 3.2, 4.3) in 2010 and 3.5% (95%: 2.8, 3.8) in 2015-16. The prevalence of HIV among the mothers was 11.1% (95%: 10.1, 12.0) and 9.2% (95% CI: 8.4, 10.1) in 2010 and 2015-16, respectively. In 2010, maternal HIV infection was negatively associated with birth weight (mean= -25.3g, 95% CI:(-95.5, -7.4)) and in 2015-16 it was positively associated with birth weight (mean= 116.3g, 95% CI:(27.8, 204.7)). Perinatal mortality was higher in infants of HIV-infected mothers compared to infants of HIV-uninfected mothers (OR = 1.5, 95% CI:(1.1 - 3.1)) in 2010, while there was no difference in the rate in 2015-16 (OR = 1.0, 95% CI:(0.4, 1.6)). ART was not associated with birth weight, however, it was associated with perinatal mortality (OR=3.9, 95% CI:(1.1, 14.8)). CONCLUSION: The study has found that maternal HIV infection had an adverse effect on birth weight and perinatal mortality in 2010. Birth weight was not dependent on ART uptake but perinatal mortality was higher among infants of HIV-infected mothers who were not on ART. The higher birth weight among HIV-infected mothers and similarity in perinatal mortality with HIV-uninfected mothers in 2015-16 may be indicative of successes of interventions within the PMTCT program in Malawi. en_ZA
dc.description.department Statistics en_ZA
dc.description.librarian pm2020 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Wellcome Trust [SSACABT] and the UK government. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Twabi, H.S., Manda, S.O. & Small, D.S. 2020, 'Assessing the effects of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcomes using cross-sectional data in Malawi', BMC Public Health, vol. 20, no. 1, art. 974, pp. 1-15. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1471-2458 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1186/s12889-020-09046-0
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_ZA
dc.rights © The Author(s). 2020 Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. en_ZA
dc.subject Propensity score en_ZA
dc.subject Confounders en_ZA
dc.subject Maternal HIV en_ZA
dc.subject Inverse weighting en_ZA
dc.subject Perinatal mortality en_ZA
dc.subject Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) en_ZA
dc.subject Antiretroviral therapy (ART) en_ZA
dc.subject Prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) en_ZA
dc.title Assessing the effects of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcomes using cross-sectional data in Malawi en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

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