Anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) mostly results from a decrease in the production of erythropoietin (EPO) by the failing kidney. CKD progression requires treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and iron supplementation to ensure sufficient erythrocyte production. Best clinical practice guidelines should be adhered to in managing CKD to reduce morbidity and mortality related to anaemia associated cardiovascular disease. Likewise, guideline deviations create an increased strain on the resources of the treatment facility. It is uncertain to which extent these guidelines are followed by Nephrology Units in the public healthcare sector, or whether the documented international trends are prevalent locally due to the paucity of local data, and therefore further investigation is warranted. This study aimed to assess treatment trends in managing anaemia in CKD patients at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital (SBAH).
Files of patients receiving treatment at the SBAH Nephrology Unit between 2 January 2018 - 31 August 2018 were reviewed. Only individuals with stage 5 CKD receiving either haemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis were included, while those with less than three months’ treatment were excluded. Measured variables included demographical information, current EPO treatment and/or iron supplementation regimens versus serum haemoglobin/iron levels and quantity of administered blood products.
Ninety-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. Haemodialysis accounted for 43% (n = 42), and peritoneal dialysis 57% (n = 55). Intergroup comparison between the number of results where both haemoglobin and iron were within the target range versus the number of results where both parameters fell outside the target range yielded a significant difference (p = 0.0031). Patients receiving peritoneal dialysis reached serum haemoglobin and iron levels closer to normal target values compared to those receiving haemodialysis.
Managing anaemia in CKD is a complex process. More stringent iron control, especially for patients receiving haemodialysis, including the administration of long-acting EPO preparations once a month, is proposed. The latter will contribute to the improvement of clinical outcomes of patients with CKD.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, anaemia, erythropoiesis stimulating agent, haemoglobin, iron
Dissertation (MSc (Pharmacology))--University of Pretoria, 2020.