Approximately 1500 people die annually due to rabies in the United Republic of Tanzania.
Moshi, in the Kilimanjaro Region, reported sporadic cases of human rabies between 2017 and 2018.
In response and following a One Health approach, we implemented surveillance, monitoring, as well
as a mass vaccinations of domestic pets concurrently in >150 villages, achieving a 74.5% vaccination
coverage (n = 29, 885 dogs and cats) by September 2018. As of April 2019, no single human or animal
case has been recorded. We have observed a disparity between awareness and knowledge levels
of community members on rabies epidemiology. Self-adherence to protective rabies vaccination in
animals was poor due to the challenges of costs and distances to vaccination centers, among others.
Incidence of dog bites was high and only a fraction (65%) of dog bite victims (humans) received
post-exposure prophylaxis. A high proportion of unvaccinated dogs and cats and the relative intense
interactions with wild dog species at interfaces were the risk factors for seropositivity to rabies virus
infection in dogs. A percentage of the previously vaccinated dogs remained unimmunized and some
unvaccinated dogs were seropositive. Evidence of community engagement and multi-coordinated
implementation of One Health in Moshi serves as an example of best practice in tackling zoonotic
diseases using multi-level government efforts. The district-level establishment of the One Health rapid
response team (OHRRT), implementation of a carefully structured routine vaccination campaign,
improved health education, and the implementation of barriers between domestic animals and
wildlife at the interfaces are necessary to reduce the burden of rabies in Moshi and communities with