Bacterial contamination of children's toys in rural day care centres and households in South Africa

Show simple item record Ledwaba, Solanka Ellen Becker, Piet J. Traore-Hoffman, Afsatou Potgieter, Natasha 2020-07-29T13:21:47Z 2020-07-29T13:21:47Z 2019-08
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Young children exhibit a high susceptibility to several diarrhoea-causing bacterial microorganisms. In this study, the prevalence of fecal contamination on children’s toys was determined using total coliform and E. coli as bacterial fecal indicators. The prevalence of diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains were used as an indication of the potential health risks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out for 3 months in rural communities in the Vhembe district, Limpopo province of South Africa. Nonporous plastic toys (n = 137) used by children under 5 years of age in households and day care centres (DCCs) from rural villages were collected for assessment. New toys (n = 109) were provided to the households and DCCs and collected again after 4 weeks. Microbiological assessment was carried out using the Colilert® Quanti-Tray/2000 system. Diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains were identified using a published multiplex PCR protocol. RESULTS: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the children in the households and DCCs were assessed. Statistical analysis was used to identify the relationship between fecal contamination of the existing and introduced toys. All the existing and introduced toy samples, both from DCCs and households, tested positive for total coliform counts and 61 existing and introduced toy samples tested positive for E. coli counts. Diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains identified included EHEC, ETEC, EPEC, EIEC and EAEC. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that water, sanitation and hygiene conditions could be responsible in the contamination of children’s toys and the transmission of diarrhoea to young children. en_ZA
dc.description.department Family Medicine en_ZA
dc.description.librarian pm2020 en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Ledwaba, S.E., Becker, P., Traore-Hoffman, A. et al. 2019, 'Bacterial contamination of children’s toys in rural day care centres and households in South Africa', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 16, no.16, a2900, pp. 1-12. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1661-7827 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1660-4601 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.3390/ijerph16162900
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher MDPI en_ZA
dc.rights © 2019 The Authors. Licensee: MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. en_ZA
dc.subject Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli en_ZA
dc.subject Toys en_ZA
dc.subject WASH conditions en_ZA
dc.subject Children en_ZA
dc.subject Fecal contamination en_ZA
dc.subject Rural village en_ZA
dc.subject Households en_ZA
dc.subject Day care centres (DCCs) en_ZA
dc.subject Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) en_ZA
dc.title Bacterial contamination of children's toys in rural day care centres and households in South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

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