The number of species that merit conservation interventions is increasing daily with ongoing habitat destruction, increased fragmentation and loss of population connectivity. Desertification and climate change reduce suitable conservation areas. Physiological stress is an inevitable part of the capture and translocation process of wild animals. Globally, capture myopathy—a malignant outcome of stress during capture operations—accounts for the highest number of deaths associated with wildlife translocation. These deaths may not only have considerable impacts on conservation efforts but also have direct and indirect financial implications. Such deaths usually are indicative of how well animal welfare was considered and addressed during a translocation exercise. Importantly, devastating consequences on the continued existence of threatened and endangered species succumbing to this known risk during capture and movement may result. Since first recorded in 1964 in Kenya, many cases of capture myopathy have been described, but the exact causes, pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment for this condition remain to be adequately studied and fully elucidated. Capture myopathy is a condition with marked morbidity and mortality that occur predominantly in wild animals around the globe. It arises from inflicted stress and physical exertion that would typically occur with prolonged or short intense pursuit, capture, restraint or transportation of wild animals. The condition carries a grave prognosis, and despite intensive extended and largely non-specific supportive treatment, the success rate is poor. Although not as common as in wildlife, domestic animals and humans are also affected by conditions with similar pathophysiology. This review aims to highlight the current state of knowledge related to the clinical and pathophysiological presentation, potential treatments, preventative measures and, importantly, the hypothetical causes and proposed pathomechanisms by comparing conditions found in domestic animals and humans. Future comparative strategies and research directions are proposed to help better understand the pathophysiology of capture myopathy.