Antibacterial activity and mode of action of acetone crude leaf extracts of underinvestigated Syzygium and Eugenia (Myrtaceae) species on multidrug resistant porcine diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli

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dc.contributor.author Famuyide, Ibukun M.
dc.contributor.author Aro, A.O. (Abimbola)
dc.contributor.author Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo
dc.contributor.author Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas
dc.contributor.author McGaw, Lyndy Joy
dc.date.accessioned 2020-07-17T05:48:21Z
dc.date.available 2020-07-17T05:48:21Z
dc.date.issued 2019-05-22
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND : Diarrhoea, a global economically important disease burden affecting swine and, especially piglets, is commonly caused by infection with entero-toxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Adherence of ETEC to porcine intestinal epithelial cells following infection, is necessary for its pathogenesis. While antimicrobials are commonly given as therapy or as feed additives for prophylaxis against microbial infections, the concern over increased levels of antimicrobial resistance necessitate the search for safe and effective alternatives in livestock feed. Attention is shifting to natural products including plants as suitable alternatives to antimicrobials. The activity of acetone crude leaf extracts of nine under-explored South African endemic plants from the Myrtaceae family with good antimicrobial activity were tested against pathogenic E. coli of porcine origin using a microplate serial dilution method. Bioautography, also with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to view the number of bioactive compounds in each extract. In vitro toxicity of extracts was determined against Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates was tested on a panel of antimicrobials using the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method while the anti-adherence mechanism was evaluated using a Caco-2 cell enterocyte anti-adhesion model. RESULTS : The MIC of the extracts ranged from 0.07–0.14 mg/mL with S. legatii having the best mean MIC (0.05 mg/ mL). Bioautography revealed at least two active bands in each plant extract. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values ranged between 0.03–0.66 mg/mL. Eugenia zeyheri least cytotoxic (LC50 = 0.66 mg/ml) while E. natalitia had the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 = 0.03 mg/mL). All the bacteria were completely resistant to doxycycline and colistin sulphate and many of the plant extracts significantly reduced adhesion of E. coli to Caco-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS : The extracts of the plants had good antibacterial activity as well as a protective role on intestinal epithelial cells against enterotoxigenic E. coli bacterial adhesion. This supports the potential use of these species in limiting infection causes by E. coli. Some of these plants or extracts may be useful as phytogenic feed additives but it has to be investigated by animal feed trials. en_ZA
dc.description.department Paraclinical Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.department Veterinary Tropical Diseases en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2020 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The University of Pretoria and the South African National Research Foundation/The World Academy of Science (NRF/ TWAS). en_ZA
dc.description.uri https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Famuyide, I.M., Aro, A.O., Fasina, F.O. et al. 2019, 'Antibacterial activity and mode of action of acetone crude leaf extracts of underinvestigated Syzygium and Eugenia (Myrtaceae) species on multidrug resistant porcine diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli', BMC Veterinary Research, vol. 15. art. 162, pp. 1-14. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1746-6148 (online)
dc.identifier.other /10.1186/s12917-019-1914-9
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/75336
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_ZA
dc.rights © The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. en_ZA
dc.subject Antimicrobial activity en_ZA
dc.subject Diarrhoea en_ZA
dc.subject Anti-adhesion en_ZA
dc.subject Phytogenic feed alternative en_ZA
dc.subject Plant extracts en_ZA
dc.subject Eugenia en_ZA
dc.subject Syzygium en_ZA
dc.subject Cytotoxicity en_ZA
dc.subject Entero-toxigenic E. coli (ETEC) en_ZA
dc.title Antibacterial activity and mode of action of acetone crude leaf extracts of underinvestigated Syzygium and Eugenia (Myrtaceae) species on multidrug resistant porcine diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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