The accurate identification of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) genes in Gram-negative bacteria is necessary for surveillance and epidemiological studies of transmission through foods. We report a novel rapid, cheap, and accurate closed tube molecular diagnostic tool based on two multiplex HRM protocols for analysis of the predominant ESBL families encountered in foods. The first multiplex PCR assay targeted blaCTX-M including phylogenetic groups 1 (CTX-M-1-15, including CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15), 2 (CTX-M-2), and 9 (CTX-M-9-14, including CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-14). The second assay involved blaTEM /bla CTX-M /blaSHV, including TEM variants (TEM-1 and TEM-2), SHV-1-56 (SHV-1, SHV-2 and SHV-56), and CTX-M-8-41 (CTX-M-8, CTX-M-25, CTX-M-26 and CTX-M-39 to CTX-M-41). The individual melting curves were differentiated by a temperature shift according to the type of ESBL gene. The specificity and sensitivity of the first assay were 100% and 98%, respectively. For the second assay, the specificity and sensitivity were 87% and 89%, respectively. The detection of ESBL variants or mutations in existing genes was also demonstrated by the subtyping of a variant of the CTXM-1-15. The HRM is a potential tool for the rapid detection of present β-lactamase genes and their characterization in a highly sensitive, closed-tube, inexpensive method that is applicable in high throughput studies.