The early detection and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) present an ideal opportunity to decrease perinatal
complications and adverse long-term health outcomes in mothers and their offspring. This review describes the major GDM screening and
diagnostic strategies used worldwide, including novel screening and diagnostic methods that are being explored. It highlights the varied
screening and diagnostic strategies currently employed in South Africa (SA). The lack of uniform GDM diagnostic criteria and variation
in clinical practice hamper early detection and management of GDM, which negatively affects maternal and child health. We recommend
that an SA diabetes-in-pregnancy study group, comprising interested obstetricians, physicians, endocrinologists, public health specialists,
dieticians and scientists, be established to make evidence-based recommendations on affordable, accessible and applicable GDM screening
and diagnostic and management strategies.