Expanding our knowledge on African trypanosomes of the subgenus Pycnomonas : a novel Trypanosoma suis-like in tsetse flies, livestock and wild ruminants sympatric with Trypanosoma suis in Mozambique

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dc.contributor.author Rodrigues, Carla M.F.
dc.contributor.author Garcia, Herakles A.
dc.contributor.author Rodrigues, Adriana C.
dc.contributor.author Pereira, Dagmar Lopes
dc.contributor.author Pereira, Carlos Lopes
dc.contributor.author Viola, Laerte B.
dc.contributor.author Neves, L.C.B.G.D. (Luís)
dc.contributor.author Camargo, Erney P.
dc.contributor.author Gibson, Wendy
dc.contributor.author Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes
dc.date.accessioned 2020-05-22T08:25:52Z
dc.date.available 2020-05-22T08:25:52Z
dc.date.issued 2020-03
dc.description.abstract Among the subgenera of African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes pathogenic to livestock, the least known is the subgenus Pycnomonas, which contains a single species, Trypanosoma suis (TSU), a pathogen of domestic pigs first reported in 1905 and recently rediscovered in Tanzania and Mozambique. Analysis by Fluorescent Fragment Length Barcoding (FFLB) revealed an infection rate of 20.3% (108 out of 530 tsetse flies) in a recent study in the Gorongosa and Niassa wildlife reserves in Mozambique, and demonstrated two groups of Pycnomonas trypanosomes: one (14.1%, 75 flies) showing an FFLB profile identical to the reference TSU from Tanzania, and the other (6.2%, 33 flies) differing slightly from reference TSU and designated Trypanosoma suis-like (TSU-L). Phylogenetic analyses tightly clustered TSU and TSU-L from Mozambique with TSU from Tanzania forming the clade Pycnomonas positioned between the subgenera Trypanozoon and Nannomonas. Our preliminarily exploration of host ranges of Pycnomonas trypanosomes revealed TSU exclusively in warthogs while TSU-L was identified, for the first time for a member of the subgenus Pycnomonas, in ruminants (antelopes, Cape buffalo, and in domestic cattle and goats). The preferential blood meal sources of tsetse flies harbouring TSU and TSU-L were wild suids, and most of these flies concomitantly harboured the porcine trypanosomes T. simiae, T. simiae Tsavo, and T. godfreyi. Therefore, our findings support the link of TSU with suids while TSU-L remains to be comprehensively investigated in these hosts. Our results greatly expand our knowledge of the diversity, hosts, vectors, and epidemiology of Pycnomonas trypanosomes. Due to shortcomings of available molecular diagnostic methods, a relevant cohort of trypanosomes transmitted by tsetse flies to ungulates, especially suids, has been neglected or most likely misidentified. The method employed in the present study enables an accurate discrimination of trypanosome species and genotypes and, hence, a re-evaluation of the “lost” subgenus Pycnomonas and of porcine trypanosomes in general, the most neglected group of African trypanosomes pathogenic to ungulates. en_ZA
dc.description.department Veterinary Tropical Diseases en_ZA
dc.description.librarian hj2020 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Brazilian grants from the PROAFRICA program (CNPq) and FAPESP (Process no 2016/07487-0). CMFR and HAG are postdoctoral fellows of CNPq (INCT-EpiAmo) and FAPESP (Process no 2016./03028-1) en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.elsevier.com/locate/meegid en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Rodrigues, C.M.F., Garcia, H.A., Rodrigues, A.C. et al. 2020, 'Expanding our knowledge on African trypanosomes of the subgenus Pycnomonas : a novel Trypanosoma suis-like in tsetse flies, livestock and wild ruminants sympatric with Trypanosoma suis in Mozambique', Infection, Genetics and Evolution, vol. 78, art. 104143, pp. 1-10. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1567-1348 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1567-7257 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104143
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/74692
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. en_ZA
dc.subject Trypanosoma suis (TSU) en_ZA
dc.subject Fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB) en_ZA
dc.subject African animal trypanosomiasis en_ZA
dc.subject Porcine trypanosomes en_ZA
dc.subject Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) en_ZA
dc.subject Neglected parasites en_ZA
dc.subject Molecular epidemiology en_ZA
dc.subject DNA barcoding en_ZA
dc.subject Taxonomy en_ZA
dc.title Expanding our knowledge on African trypanosomes of the subgenus Pycnomonas : a novel Trypanosoma suis-like in tsetse flies, livestock and wild ruminants sympatric with Trypanosoma suis in Mozambique en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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