Eucalypts are the most planted trees worldwide, but most of them are frost sensitive. Overexpressing transcription factors for CRT-repeat binding factors (CBFs) in transgenic Eucalyptus confer cold resistance both in leaves and stems. While wood plays crucial roles in trees and is affected by environmental cues, its potential role in adaptation to cold stress has been neglected. Here, we addressed this question by investigating the changes occurring in wood in response to the overexpression of two CBFs, taking advantage of available transgenic Eucalyptus lines. We performed histological, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses on xylem samples. CBF ectopic expression led to a reduction of both primary and secondary growth, and triggered changes in xylem architecture with smaller and more frequent vessels and fibers exhibiting reduced lumens. In addition, lignin content and syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio increased. Consistently, many genes of the phenylpropanoid and lignin branch pathway were upregulated. Most of the features of xylem remodeling induced by CBF overexpression are reminiscent of those observed after long exposure of Eucalyptus trees to chilling temperatures. Altogether, these results suggest that CBF plays a central role in the cross-talk between response to cold and wood formation and that the remodeling of wood is part of the adaptive strategies to face cold stress.