Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in South African indoor dust and cat hair

Show simple item record Brits, Martin Brandsma, Sicco H. Rohwer, Egmont Richard De Vos, Jayne Weiss, Jana M. De Boer, Jacob H. 2020-02-19T08:48:57Z 2019-10
dc.description.abstract Flame retardants (FRs), such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), are diverse groups of compounds used in various products related to the indoor environment. In this study concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two alternative BFRs and ten OPFRs were determined in indoor dust (n = 20) and pet cat hair (n = 11) from South Africa. The OPFRs were the major FRs, contributing to more than 97% of the total FR concentration. The median Ʃ10OPFRs concentrations were 44,800 ng/g in freshly collected dust (F-dust), 19,800 ng/g in the dust collected from vacuum cleaner bags (V-dust), and 865 ng/g in cat hair (C-hair). Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the dominant OPFR in the dust samples with median concentrations of 7,010 ng/g in F-dust and 3,590 ng/g in V-dust. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) was the dominant OPFR in C-hair, with a median concentration of 387 ng/g. The concentrations of Ʃ8PBDEs were higher in F-dust than in V-dust. BDE209 was the dominant BFR in all three matrices. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5- tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) showed notable contributions to the BFR profile in cat hair. A worst-case dust exposure estimation was performed for all analytes. The estimated TCIPP daily intake through dust ingestion was up to 1,240 ng/kg bw for toddlers. The results indicate that OPFRs are ubiquitous in South African indoor environment. Indoor dust is a major source of human exposure to environmental contaminants. This can for example occur through hand-to-mouth contact of toddlers, and is an important route of exposure to currently used FRs accumulated on dust particles. The presence of FRs, in particular high concentrations of OPFRs, suggests that children and indoor pet cats may have greater exposure to FRs than adults. en_ZA
dc.description.department Chemistry en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2020-10-01
dc.description.librarian hj2020 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The National Research Foundation of South Africa (VU University Amsterdam - NRF Desmond Tutu doctoral scholarship grant number: 94075) and by the Swedish Research Council Formas (Project MiSSE number: 210-2012-131). en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Brits, M., Brandsma, S.H., Rohwer, E.R. et al. 2019, 'Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in South African indoor dust and cat hair', Environmental Pollution, vol. 253, pp. 120-129. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0269-7491 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1873-6424 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.121
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Environmental Pollution. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. A definitive version was subsequently published in Environmental Pollution, vol. 253, pp. 120-129, 2019. doi : 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.121. en_ZA
dc.subject South African indoor environment en_ZA
dc.subject Brominated flame retardant (BFR) en_ZA
dc.subject Flame retardant (FR) en_ZA
dc.subject Organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) en_ZA
dc.subject Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) en_ZA
dc.subject Cat hair en_ZA
dc.title Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in South African indoor dust and cat hair en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA

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