Since 1949, the Ravitch repair for pectus excavatum and carinatum
was the gold standard. This is a destructive, aggressive procedure,
which has a significant recurrence rate when it is poorly performed.
When performed in the very young, it can result in an asphyxiating
chondrodystrophy. This is a condition in which the chest wall fails
to grow owing to the growth plates having been resected, resulting in
pulmonary failure as an adult.