Despite its name, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been shown using
immunohistochemistry (IHC) to also be over-expressed in the tumor neovasculature of a wide
variety of solid tumors other than prostate carcinoma. Accordingly, positron-emitting radiolabeled
small molecules targeting PSMA, initially developed for positron emission tomography in prostate
carcinomas, are currently being explored for their staging and restaging potential as an alternative
imaging modality in other solid tumor types where 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging
has low diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, the currently available literature in this field is reviewed.
Preliminary, mainly retrospective studies are encouraging, with evidence of improved diagnostic
sensitivity and specificity in clear cell renal carcinoma, glioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma,
leading to a change in patient management in several patients. However, the results published thus
far warrant confirmation by larger prospective studies additionally assessing the longitudinal impact
on patient outcomes.