The primary aim of the study that this article reports was to model and test a social ecological explanation of resilience as explained by Ungar. Its secondary aim was to investigate resilience-promoting supports in school-going Black South African adolescents. School attendance was specified as a culturally appropriate, functional outcome of resilience. The Pathways to Resilience Research Project gathered data through the Pathways to Resilience Youth Measure. Seven hundred and thirty school-going adolescents (age 12–19 years, 388 female, 341 male, one unspecified) from Thabo Mofutsanyana District, in South Africa’s Free State province, participated in this cross-sectional study. Latent variable modeling was used to test measurement models of adolescents’ self-reported perceptions of social ecological contributions (resources and risks) to their resilience. A complex model based on a social ecological explanation of resilience fitted the data best. The structural model showed that the resilience process predicted 32% of the variance in school attendance. Social skills, cultural, and spiritual resources were most supportive of adolescents’ resilience. The results confirmed that the complex model explained resilience in Black South African adolescents as a person-context relational process and prompt principals, parents, teachers, and governmental departments to encourage school attendance.