The Karoo Meat of Origin certification scheme is the first certification scheme established to differentiate and protect a region of origin meat product in South Africa. Although this scheme has come a long way in protecting the value embedded in the name ‘Karoo’, many challenges and loopholes for non-compliance still exist. These challenges include opportunistic behaviour on the farmers’ side regarding the vulnerable free range claim as well as inconsistent supply and mismatched objectives of supply chain stakeholders. Because of these challenges the niche product has not yet come to its own. The purpose of this case study is threefold. Firstly, to understand the notion of Karoo Lamb as a geographical indication, and the subsequent establishment of the Karoo Meat of Origin certification scheme. Secondly, to identify and understand both the institutional and supply chain challenges that Karoo Lamb is faced with. Thirdly, to guide the certification scheme to evaluate their modus operandi for better regulation. Ultimately, the managerial decisions are expected to come full circle; if the certification scheme is better-managed consumers may be willing to pay higher premiums which might, in turn, convince farmers to become part of this prestigious certification scheme.?