The explanation of the relation between religiousness (being religious; doing according to
one’s religion’s recommendations) and extremism depends on the different types of
religiousness. Religiousness in terms of its religious theme can be divided into four types:
(1) religiousness with an epistemological theme, (2) religiousness with a moral theme
(virtue-oriented behaviours and habits), (3) identical religiousness with a religiousidentification
theme and (4) ritual religiousness, with the theme of religious rituals. Islamic
religiousness is a combination of all four types. This religiousness is based on episteme. These
elements, as mentioned sequentially, are based on each other, and the layer beneath is
epistemological religiousness. Lack of one of the three types makes a person tend towards
reductionist religiousness, but lack of episteme makes an individual tend towards extremism.
Epistemological religiousness is based on self-knowledge. Religiousness that is based on selfknowledge
is the main reason for internal and external moderation; religiousness of extremism
is the result of self-ignorance and covering up one’s ignorance.