Sensor networks generate substantial amounts of frequently updated, highly dynamic data
that are transmitted as packets in a data stream. The high frequency and continuous unbound nature
of data streams leads to challenges when deriving knowledge from the underlying observations.
This paper presents (1) a state of the art review into visual analytics of geospatial, spatio-temporal
streaming data, and (2) proposes a framework based on the identified gaps from the review.
The framework consists of (1) the data model that characterizes the sensor observation data, (2) the
user model, which addresses the user queries and manages domain knowledge, (3) the design model,
which handles the patterns that can be uncovered from the data and corresponding visualizations,
and (4) the visualization model, which handles the rendering of the data. The conclusion from the
visualization model is that streaming sensor observations require tools that can handle multivariate,
multiscale, and time series displays. The design model reveals that the most useful patterns are those
that show relationships, anomalies, and aggregations of the data. The user model highlights the
need for handling missing data, dealing with high frequency changes, as well as the ability to review