Editorial : Management of immune-related adverse events for patients undergoing treatment with checkpoint inhibitors

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dc.contributor.author Rapoport, Bernardo Leon
dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-26T10:55:26Z
dc.date.available 2019-08-26T10:55:26Z
dc.date.issued 2019-05-08
dc.description.abstract Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has emerged as the most significant advance in the treatment of cancer in recent years and has revolutionized cancer management (1). Until recently, it had been assumed that the immune system was not effective in protecting humans against the development of neoplastic diseases. Checkpoints inhibitors are co-receptors expressed by T cells. These co-receptors regulate T cell activation negatively and play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral self-tolerance. Co-inhibitory receptor ligands are significantly expressed in a variety of malignancies resulting in evasion of anti-cancer immunity. These molecules include programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and were discovered by Tasuku Honjo and James P. Allison in 1992 and 1996, respectively (2, 3). These scientists were jointly awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in recognition of this ground-breaking research. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the CTLA-4 and PD-1 and their ligands have produced significant clinical responses against a variety of malignancies (4). FDA registered checkpoint inhibitors include pembrolizumab (5), nivolumab (6), cemiplimab (7), atezolizumab (8), darvolumab (9) and avelumab (10) for numerous indications including melanoma, lung cancer (small and non-small cell types), bladder cancer, Hodgkin’s disease and others (5–10). Other co-inhibitory molecules under research include T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) (11), Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) (12), V-domain Ig-containing Suppressor of T cell Activation (VISTA) (13), and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) (14). Treatment with antibodies inhi biting immune checkpoints are well-tolerated by the vast majority of patients and are less toxic compared to standard anticancer chemotherapy agents. These immune side-effects are referred to as immune-related adverse events (IrAE) (15). en_ZA
dc.description.department Immunology en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2019 en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.frontiersin.org/Oncology en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Rapoport BL (2019) Editorial: Management of Immune-Related Adverse Events for Patients Undergoing Treatment With Checkpoint Inhibitors. Frontiers in Oncology 9:365. DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00365. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 2234-943X (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.3389/fonc.2019.00365
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/71204
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Frontiers Media en_ZA
dc.rights © 2019 Rapoport. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). en_ZA
dc.subject Immune related adverse effects en_ZA
dc.subject Colitis en_ZA
dc.subject Pneumonitis en_ZA
dc.subject Anti CTLA 4 en_ZA
dc.subject Anti-PD 1 en_ZA
dc.subject Treatment en_ZA
dc.subject Checkpoint inhibitors en_ZA
dc.subject Patients en_ZA
dc.title Editorial : Management of immune-related adverse events for patients undergoing treatment with checkpoint inhibitors en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA


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