Sperm banking and AI could benefit endangered African wild dog conservation. However, it is unclear whether their dominance hierarchy causes a decrease in reproductive and sperm quality parameters in subordinate males that typically do not breed. In this study, we investigated the effect of social rank on male reproductive parameters, including faecal androgen and glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations, prostate and testes volume, preputial gland size, semen collection success and sperm quality. Samples were obtained from captive males (prebreeding season: n=12 from four packs; breeding season: n=24 from seven packs) that were classified as alpha (dominant), beta or gamma (subordinates) based on the frequency of dominant versus submissive behaviours. In the prebreeding season, semen was successfully collected from all alpha but only half the subordinate males, with urine contamination (associated with lower rank) significantly reducing total and progressive motility, sperm motility index, normal sperm morphology and acrosome integrity. The breeding season was associated with a significant increase in faecal androgens, prostate and testis volume, as well as progressive motility and the total number of spermatozoa ejaculated. However, with the exception of prostate volume (mean±s.e.m: 12.5±4.5, 7.1±1.0 and 7.3±1.0cm3 in alpha, beta and gamma males respectively; P=0.035), all other reproductive and sperm quality parameters did not differ between males of each social rank. In conclusion, reproductive suppression of subordinate males appears to be behaviourally mediated, because males of all social ranks produce semen of similar quality, making them suitable candidates for sperm banking, particularly during the breeding season when sperm quality improves.