Uromycladium tepperianum has been reported on over 100 species of Acacia, as well as on the closely related plant genera, Falcataria, Racosperma and Paraserianthes. Previous studies have indicated that U. tepperianum may represent a complex of host-specific, cryptic species. The phylogenetic relationships between 79 specimens of Uromycladium were determined based on a concatenated dataset of the Small Subunit, the Internal Transcribed Spacer and the Large Subunit regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3. This study showed that the host range of U. tepperianum s.str. was restricted to species of Acacia in the ‘A. bivenosa group’ sensu Chapman & Maslin (1992). An epitype of U. tepperianum on A. ligulata is designated to create a stable taxonomy for the application of this name. Sixteen novel species of Uromycladium are described, based on host preference, morphology and a phylogenetic species concept.