More than $1 billion needed annually to secure Africa’s protected areas with lions

Show simple item record Lindsey, Peter Andrew Miller, Jennifer R.B. Petracca, Lisanne S. Coad, Lauren DIckman, Amy J. Fitzgerald, Kathleen H. Flyman, Michael V. Funston, Paul J. Henschel, Philipp Kasiki, Samuel Knights, Kathryn Loveridge, Andrew J. Macdonald, David W. Mandisodza-Chikerema, Roseline L. Nazerali, Sean Plumptre, Andrew J. Stevens, Riko Van Zyl, Hugo W. Hunter, Luke T.B. 2019-03-12T12:55:38Z 2018-11
dc.description.abstract Protected areas (PAs) play an important role in conserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services, yet their effectiveness is undermined by funding shortfalls. Using lions (Panthera leo) as a proxy for PA health, we assessed available funding relative to budget requirements for PAs in Africa’s savannahs. We compiled a dataset of 2015 funding for 282 state-owned PAs with lions. We applied three methods to estimate the minimum funding required for effective conservation of lions, and calculated deficits. We estimated minimum required funding as $978/km2 per year based on the cost of effectively managing lions in nine reserves by the African Parks Network; $1,271/km2 based on modeled costs of managing lions at ≥50% carrying capacity across diverse conditions in 115 PAs; and $2,030/km2 based on Packer et al.’s [Packer et al. (2013) Ecol Lett 16:635–641] cost of managing lions in 22 unfenced PAs. PAs with lions require a total of $1.2 to $2.4 billion annually, or ∼$1,000 to 2,000/km2, yet received only $381 million annually, or a median of $200/km2. Ninety-six percent of range countries had funding deficits in at least one PA, with 88 to 94% of PAs with lions funded insufficiently. In funding-deficit PAs, available funding satisfied just 10 to 20% of PA requirements on average, and deficits total $0.9 to $2.1 billion. African governments and the international community need to increase the funding available for management by three to six times if PAs are to effectively conserve lions and other species and provide vital ecological and economic benefits to neighboring communities. en_ZA
dc.description.department Mammal Research Institute en_ZA
dc.description.department Zoology and Entomology en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2019-05-06
dc.description.librarian hj2019 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Panthera provided funding to support the study. J.R.B.M. was supported in part by National Science Foundation Coupled Human and Natural Systems Grant 115057. L.C. was funded by the US Agency for International Development. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Lindsey, P.A., Miller, J.R.B., Petracca, L.S. et al. 2018, 'More than $1 billion needed annually to secure Africa’s protected areas with lions', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 115, no. 45, pp. E10788-E10796. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0027-8424 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1091-6490 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1073/pnas.1805048115
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher National Academy of Sciences en_ZA
dc.rights Published under the PNAS license. en_ZA
dc.subject Budget en_ZA
dc.subject Comanagement en_ZA
dc.subject Conservation effectiveness en_ZA
dc.subject Deficit en_ZA
dc.subject Funding need en_ZA
dc.subject Protected areas (PAs) en_ZA
dc.subject Lion (Panthera leo) en_ZA
dc.title More than $1 billion needed annually to secure Africa’s protected areas with lions en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA

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