Our aim in this article is to explore what is known about resilience in women and girls; to theorise how gender-roles are reflected in women's and girls' resilience processes; and to explore how apposite researchers' explanations of resilience are for black South African girls. We1 conducted a systematic review entailing a qualitative synthesis using relevant qualitative studies focusing on resilience in girls and women of all ages and from diverse cultural groups. Findings from studies that report predominantly on the experiences of Western women suggest that women's and girls' resilience-supporting mechanisms (agency and strength-fostering spirituality) are cultivated through constructive relational contexts that offer emotional and pragmatic support. Gender-roles of interdependence, the physical and emotional caretaking of others, and emotional expressiveness manifest in resilience-supporting mechanisms through complex person-context interactions. However, if the context- and culturally-specific nature of resilience is taken into account, explanations of resilience in black South African girls are limited, and further robust research on the subject is needed.