Pharmacokinetics of an intravenous and oral dose of enrofloxacin in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

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dc.contributor.author Leiberich, Marion
dc.contributor.author Krebber, Ralph
dc.contributor.author Hewetson, Michael
dc.contributor.author Marais, Johan
dc.contributor.author Naidoo, Vinny
dc.date.accessioned 2019-02-28T09:29:43Z
dc.date.issued 2019-01
dc.description.abstract South Africa currently loses over 1000 white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) each year to poaching incidents, and numbers of severely injured victims found alive have increased dramatically. However, little is known about the antimicrobial treatment of wounds in rhinoceros. This study explores the applicability of enrofloxacin for rhinoceros through the use of pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic modelling. The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were evaluated in five white rhinoceros after intravenous (i.v.) and after successive i.v. and oral administration of 12.5 mg/kg enrofloxacin. After i.v. administration, the half‐life, area under the curve (AUCtot), clearance and the volume of distribution were 12.41 ± 2.62 hr, 64.5 ± 14.44 μg ml−1 hr−1, 0.19 ± 0.04 L h−1 kg−1, and 2.09 ± 0.48 L/kg, respectively. Ciprofloxacin reached 26.42 ± 0.05% of the enrofloxacin plasma concentration. After combined i.v. and oral enrofloxacin administration oral bioavailability was 33.30 ± 38.33%. After i.v. enrofloxacin administration, the efficacy marker AUC24: MIC exceeded the recommended ratio of 125 against bacteria with an MIC of 0.5 μg/mL. Subsequent intravenous and oral enrofloxacin administration resulted in a low Cmax: MIC ratio of 3.1. The results suggest that intravenous administration of injectable enrofloxacin could be a useful drug with bactericidal properties in rhinoceros. However, the maintenance of the drug plasma concentration at a bactericidal level through additional per os administration of 10% oral solution of enrofloxacin indicated for the use in chickens, turkeys and rabbits does not seem feasible. en_ZA
dc.description.department Companion Animal Clinical Studies en_ZA
dc.description.department Paraclinical Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2020-01-17
dc.description.librarian hj2019 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the University of Pretoria, the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA) and Bayer Animal Health. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jvp en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Leiberich M, Krebber R, Hewetson M, Marais J, Naidoo V. Pharmacokinetics of an intravenous and oral dose of enrofloxacin in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2019;00:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12747. NYP. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0140-7783 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1365-2885 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1111/jvp.12747
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/68511
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Wiley en_ZA
dc.rights © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article : Pharmacokinetics of an intravenous and oral dose of enrofloxacin in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2019;00:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12747. The definite version is available at : http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jvp. en_ZA
dc.subject Antimicrobial drug en_ZA
dc.subject Enrofloxacin en_ZA
dc.subject Fluoroquinolone en_ZA
dc.subject Poaching en_ZA
dc.subject White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) en_ZA
dc.subject South Africa (SA) en_ZA
dc.title Pharmacokinetics of an intravenous and oral dose of enrofloxacin in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA


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