BACKGROUND : Teratosphaeria gauchensis and T. zuluensis are closely
related fungi that cause Teratosphaeria (previously Coniothyrium)
stem canker disease on Eucalyptus species propagated in plantations
for commercial purposes. This disease is present in many countries in
which Eucalyptus trees are planted, and continues to spread with the
international trade of infected plant germplasm.
TAXONOMY : Fungi, Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Dothideomycetes,
Dothideomycetidae, Capnodiales, Teratosphaeriaceae,
IDENTIFICATION : The causal agents form dark masses of pycnidia
that are visible on the surface of distinct stem cankers that
typically form on young green stem tissues. Accurate diagnosis of
the causal agents requires DNA sequence data.
HOST RANGE : Nine species of Eucalyptus are known to be
affected. Of these, E. grandis and its hybrids, which include some
of the most important planting stock globally, appear to be particularly
DISEASE SYMPTOMS : Small necrotic lesions develop on young
green stem tissue. These lesions coalesce to form large cankers
that exude gum. Epicormic shoots develop below the girdling
canker and, in severe cases, trees die.
USEFUL WEBSITES : Mycobank, https://www.mycobank.org;
Publications of the Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology
Institute (FABI), https://www.fabinet.up.ac.za/index.php/journals
Fig. S1 Taxonomic history of Teratosphaeria zuluensis and T. gauchensis.
Fig. S2 Culture morphology of Teratosphaeria gauchensis (row a, b) and T. zuluensis (row c, d) from above (row a, c) and below (row b, d). Cultures were grown on malt extract agar for 3 weeks at 26 °C, using an initial 5‐mm mycelial plug and 65‐mm Petri dishes.
Text S1 Phylogenetic methods and GenBank® accession numbers used to construct Fig. 3.