Staphylococcus aureus is not only a common cause of bovine mastitis, but also an agent of food poisoning in humans. In an attempt to determine whether staphylococci causing bovine mastitis could also cause food poisoning, 60 isolates of presumed S. aureus were isolated in the period between March and August 2017 from 3,384 routine, composite, quarter milk samples of individual cows raised on 12 dairy farms in central Italy. Seventeen out of 60 isolates were confirmed as S. aureus after coagulase, thermonuclease, and biochemical tests. These isolates were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the nuc, sea, seb, sec, sed, and see genes. The positive isolates were nuc, 100% (17); sea, 35.29% (6); seb, 5.88% (1); sec, 5.88% (1); sed, 29.41% (5); and see, 47.06% (8). The isolates were also tested with 2 enzyme immunoassay diagnostic kits, one for the screening detection of the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE) and one for the detection of specific enterotoxin produced by each isolate. Seven out of 17 (41.18%) were enterotoxin producers: 7 produced SEA (41.18%), 1 SEB (5.88%), 1 SEC (5.88%), 5 SED (29.41%), and 6 SEE (35.29%). To further characterize the isolates, they were analyzed by the Kirby Bauer test for susceptibility to 13 antimicrobials (ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, methicillin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, streptomycin, vancomycin, neomycin, and enrofloxacin), and we detected resistance to ampicillin (52.94%), nalidixic acid (70.59%), erythromycin (5.88%), and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (17.65%). The isolates were sensitive to the main classes of antimicrobials used for the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis. The presence of enterotoxin-producing isolates of S. aureus in bovine milk means that a temperature abuse or a breakdown in the thermal treatment of the milk could present a food safety risk, particularly if all enterotoxigenic isolates could potentially produce SEA in milk.