Bacterial nitrogen fixation in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio

Show simple item record Welz, Pamela J. Ramond, Jean-Baptiste Braun, Lorenz Vikram, Surendra Le Roes-Hill, Marilize 2019-01-11T09:31:43Z 2018-02
dc.description.abstract Heterotrophic bacteria proliferate in organic-rich environments and systems containing sufficient essential nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the nutrients required in the highest concentrations. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen is an important consideration for wastewater bioremediation because insufficient nitrogen may result in decreased treatment efficiency. It has been shown that during the treatment of effluent from the pulp and paper industry, bacterial nitrogen fixation can supplement the nitrogen requirements of suspended growth systems. This study was conducted using physicochemical analyses and culture-dependent and -independent techniques to ascertain whether nitrogen-fixing bacteria were selected in biological sand filters used to treat synthetic winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (193:1). The systems performed well, with the influent COD of 1351 mg/L being reduced by 84–89%. It was shown that the nitrogen fixing bacterial population was influenced by the presence of synthetic winery effluent in the surface layers of the biological sand filters, but not in the deeper layers. It was hypothesised that this was due to the greater availability of atmospheric nitrogen at the surface. The numbers of culture-able nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including presumptive Azotobacter spp. exhibited 1–2 log increases at the surface. The results of this study confirm that nitrogen fixation is an important mechanism to be considered during treatment of high carbon to nitrogen wastewater. If biological treatment systems can be operated to stimulate this phenomenon, it may obviate the need for nitrogen addition. en_ZA
dc.description.department Genetics en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2019-02-01
dc.description.librarian hj2019 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The Cape Peninsula University of Technology en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Welz P.J., Ramond J.-B., Braun L. et al. 2018, 'Bacterial nitrogen fixation in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio', Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 207, pp. 192-202. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 0301-4797 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1095-8630 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.11.015
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Environmental Management. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 207, pp. 192-202. 2018. doi : 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.11.015. en_ZA
dc.subject Bacterial nitrogen fixation en_ZA
dc.subject Biological sand filters en_ZA
dc.subject High C:N wastewater en_ZA
dc.subject Winery wastewater en_ZA
dc.subject Bacteria (microorganisms) en_ZA
dc.subject Azotobacter en_ZA
dc.subject Water sampling en_ZA
dc.subject Waste water management en_ZA
dc.subject Surface property en_ZA
dc.subject Species differentiation en_ZA
dc.subject Sand en_ZA
dc.subject Rhizobiales en_ZA
dc.subject Restriction fragment length polymorphism en_ZA
dc.subject Plankton en_ZA
dc.subject Physical chemistry en_ZA
dc.subject Nitrogen-fixing bacterium en_ZA
dc.subject Nitrogen fixation en_ZA
dc.subject nifH gene en_ZA
dc.subject Next generation sequencing en_ZA
dc.subject Microbial community en_ZA
dc.subject Metagenomics en_ZA
dc.subject Gram staining en_ZA
dc.subject Geobacter en_ZA
dc.subject Gammaproteobacteria en_ZA
dc.subject Effluent en_ZA
dc.subject DNA extraction en_ZA
dc.subject Diazotroph en_ZA
dc.subject Deltaproteobacteria en_ZA
dc.subject Concentration (parameters) en_ZA
dc.subject Community structure en_ZA
dc.subject Chemical oxygen demand en_ZA
dc.subject Bioremediation en_ZA
dc.subject Biofilm en_ZA
dc.subject Bacterium culture en_ZA
dc.subject Bacterial gene en_ZA
dc.subject Bacterial colonization en_ZA
dc.subject Azotobacter en_ZA
dc.subject Amplicon en_ZA
dc.subject Alphaproteobacteria en_ZA
dc.title Bacterial nitrogen fixation in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA

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