South Africa is estimated to have about 7.06 million of the global HIV/AIDS
infections of 36.7 million people in 2017 (UNAIDS, 2017a; Statistics South Africa,
2017). It is estimated that 19.2 percent of South Africans of ages 15 to 59 were
infected with HIV/AIDS in 2015 (UNAIDS, 2015a). In South Africa, Gauteng
province had the fifth highest HIV and AIDS prevalence in 2012 (Human Sciences
Research Council, 2014). There is a need to reduce HIV infections amongst
adolescents in Gauteng province of South Africa.
The study focused on developing a model of factors contributing to high HIV and
AIDS prevalence amongst adolescents in Gauteng province of South Africa. To
establish the specific model, the researcher elicited learners‟ perceptions of
contributing factors to adolescents‟ high HIV and AIDS.
Various individual models used to design interventions in South Africa had been
criticised. In this study, three of these models were explored; the Theory of
Planned Behaviour, the Information Motivation Behaviour Skills Model and the
Social Ecology Theory. These three models were integrated into a new model to
determine the applicability of interventions based on each model, as well as to find
out other factors that contribute to HIV infection besides behaviour. This was done
to fill the gap of the narrow perspectives and non-lasting effects of each model
In this study a qualitative research method was used. The study was influenced
by, but not exclusively based on Grounded Theory. Purposive and convenient
sampling methods were used to identify Grade 11 learners (n=24) in three high
schools in Gauteng province. However, 15 Grade 11 learners were the actual
sample size that provided information that addressed the purpose of the study.
Data was collected using semi structured interviews. The results were analysed
using initial and focused coding and comparative analysis.
Results were situated in the context of these three existing models. Findings show
that intentions, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, knowledge and social ecology settings were contributing factors to adolescents‟ high HIV and
AIDS prevalence in Gauteng province. In addition, novel findings extended the
existing definitions of intentions, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control,
knowledge and social ecology settings. Consequently, the researcher developed a
new multifaceted theoretical model to describe those factors that participants
regarded as contributing factors to the high HIV and AIDS prevalence amongst
adolescents. This model may describe HIV and AIDS behavioural studies and
prevention more effectively than existing models, although the study did not
include the development of interventions to test the model.
Policy makers, researchers, educators and adolescents may use findings of this
study. It is hoped that the model would be useful for the scholarship pertaining to
HIV and AIDS studies and prevention.