A phytochemical and biological investigation of the endemic Mascarene Aloes (Aloe spp.), including A. tormentorii (Marais) L.E.Newton & G.D.Rowley, A. purpurea Lam, A. macra Haw., A. lomatophylloides Balf.f and A. vera (synonym A. barbadensis Mill.), which are used in the traditional folk medicine of the Mascarene Islands, was initiated. Methanolic extracts of the Aloes under study were analysed using high resolution LC-UV-MS/MS and compounds belonging to the class of anthraquinones, anthrones, chromones and flavone C-glycosides were detected. The Mascarene Aloes could be distinguished from A. vera by the absence of 2″-O-feruloylaloesin and 7-O-methylaloeresin. GC–MS analysis of monosaccharides revealed the presence of arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose and galactose in all the Mascarene Aloes and in A. vera. The crude extracts of all Aloes analysed displayed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only extracts of A. macra were active against P. aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while none of the Aloe extracts inhibited Propionibacterium acnes. A. macra displayed anti-tyrosinase activity, exhibiting 50% inhibition at 0.95 mg/mL, and extracts of A. purpurea (Mauritius) and A. vera displayed activity in a wound healing-scratch assay. In vitro cytotoxicity screening of crude methanolic extracts of the Aloes, using the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) showed that only A. purpurea (Réunion) elicited a modest toxic effect against HL60 cells, with a percentage toxicity of 8.2% (A. purpurea-Réunion) and none of the Aloe extracts elicited a toxic effect against MRC 5 fibroblast cells at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Mascarene Aloe species possess noteworthy pharmacological attributes associated with their rich phytochemical profiles.