Genetic improvement in South African livestock : can genomics bridge the gap between the developed and developing sectors?

Show simple item record Van Marle-Koster, Este Visser, Carina 2018-10-18T06:37:57Z 2018-10-18T06:37:57Z 2018-08-23
dc.description.abstract South Africa (SA) holds a unique position on the African continent with a rich diversity in terms of available livestock resources, vegetation, climatic regions and cultures. The livestock sector has been characterized by a dual system of a highly developed commercial sector using modern technology vs. a developing sector including emerging and smallholder farmers. Emerging farmers typically aim to join the commercial sector, but lag behind with regard to the use of modern genetic technologies, while smallholder farmers use traditional practices aimed at subsistence. Several factors influence potential application of genomics by the livestock industries, which include available research funding, socio-economic constraints and extension services. State funded Beef and Dairy genomic programs have been established with the aim of building reference populations for genomic selection with most of the potential beneficiaries in the well-developed commercial sector. The structure of the beef, dairy and small stock industries is fragmented and the outcomes of selection strategies are not perceived as an advantage by the processing industry or the consumer. The indigenous and local composites represent approximately 40% of the total beef and sheep populations and present valuable genetic resources. Genomic research has mostly provided insight on genetic biodiversity of these resources, with limited attention to novel phenotypes associated with adaptation or disease tolerance. Genetic improvement of livestock through genomic technology needs to address the role of adapted breeds in challenging environments, increasing reproductive and growth efficiency. National animal recording schemes contributed significantly to progress in the developed sector with regard to genetic evaluations and estimated breeding values (EBV) as a selection tool over the past three decades. The challenge remains on moving the focus to novel traits for increasing efficiency and addressing welfare and environmental issues. Genetic research programs are required that will be directed to bridge the gap between the elite breeders and the developing livestock sector. The aim of this review was to provide a perspective on the dichotomy in the South African livestock sector arguing that a realistic approach to the use of genomics in beef, dairy and small stock is required to ensure sustainable long term genetic progress. en_ZA
dc.description.department Animal and Wildlife Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.librarian am2018 en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Van Marle-Köster E and Visser C (2018) Genetic Improvement in South African Livestock: Can Genomics Bridge the Gap Between the Developed and Developing Sectors? Front. Genet. 9:331. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00331. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1664-8021 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.3389/fgene.2018.00331
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Frontiers Media en_ZA
dc.rights © 2018 van Marle-Köster and Visser. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). en_ZA
dc.subject Animal recording en_ZA
dc.subject Developing countries en_ZA
dc.subject Indigenous livestock en_ZA
dc.subject Novel traits en_ZA
dc.subject Smallholder farmers en_ZA
dc.subject Economically important traits en_ZA
dc.subject Enteric methane emissions en_ZA
dc.subject Angora goats en_ZA
dc.subject SNP genotypes en_ZA
dc.subject South Africa (SA) en_ZA
dc.subject Breeding value (BV) en_ZA
dc.subject Genome-wide association en_ZA
dc.subject Microsatellite markers en_ZA
dc.subject Parentage verification en_ZA
dc.subject Holstein dairy cattle en_ZA
dc.title Genetic improvement in South African livestock : can genomics bridge the gap between the developed and developing sectors? en_ZA
dc.type Article en_ZA

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