PURPOSE : In view of the consensus that climate change is happening, scientists have documented
several findings about Uganda’s recent climate, as well as its variability and change. The purpose of this
study is to review what has been documented, thus it gives an overview of what is known and seeks to
explain the implications of a changing climate, hence what ought to be known to create a climate resilient
DESIGN, METHODOLOGY/APPROACH : Terms such as “climate”, “climate change” and “climate variability”
were identified in recent peer-reviewed published literature to find recent climate-related literature on Uganda.
Findings from independent researchers and consultants are incorporated. Data obtained from rainfall and
temperature observations and from COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model-Coordinated Regional Climate
Downscaling Experiment (CCLM CORDEX) data, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
(ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) have
been used to generate spatial maps, seasonal outputs and projections using GrADS 2.02 and Geographic
Information System (GIS) software for visualization.
FINDINGS : The climate of Uganda is tropical in nature and influenced by the Inter-Tropical
Convergence Zone (ITCZ), varied relief, geo-location and inland lakes, among other factors. The impacts
of severe weather and climate trends and variability have been documented substantially in the past 20-
30 years. Most studies indicated a rainfall decline. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures are on
the rise, while projections indicate a decrease in rainfall and increase in temperature both in the near and
far future. The implication of these changes on society and the economy are discussed herein. Cost of
inaction is expected to become huge, given factors like, the growing rate of the population and the slow
expanding economy experienced in Uganda. Varied forms of adaptation to the impacts of climate
change are being implemented, especially in the agricultural sector and at house hold level, though not
ORIGINALITY/VALUE : This review of scientific research findings aims to create a better understanding of the
recent climate change and variability in Uganda and provides a baseline of summarized information for use in
future research and actions.