BACKGROUND : Although prior studies have shown that smoking reduces preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, the
consequence of giving up this habit during pregnancy should be assessed. The aims of the
current study were threefold: (i) describe maternal characteristics of women with preeclampsia/
eclampsia; (ii) examine a possible association between the number of cigarettes smoked
daily during pregnancy and the development of this affliction; and (iii) determine if first-trimester
discontinuation of smoking during pregnancy influences the risk.
METHODS : A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Murmansk County Birth Registry
(MCBR). It included women without pre-existing hypertension, who delivered a singleton
infant during 2006±2011 and had attended the first antenatal visit before 12 week of gestation.
We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression.
RESULTS : The prevalence of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 8.3% (95%CI: 8.0±8.6). Preeclampsia/
eclampsia associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight
gain and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a dose-response relationship
between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia/
eclampsia (adjusted OR1-5 cig/day = 0.69 with 95%CI: 0.56±0.87; OR6-10 cig/day = 0.65 with 95%CI: 0.51±0.82; and OR 11 cig/day = 0.49 with 95%CI: 0.30±0.81). There was no difference in this risk among women who smoked before and during pregnancy and those
who did so before but not during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.10 with 95%CI: 0.91±1.32).
CONCLUSIONS : Preeclampsia/eclampsia was associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity,
excessive weight gain, and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a negative
dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during
pregnancy and the odds of preeclampsia/eclampsia. However, women who gave up smoking
during the first trimester of gestation had the same risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia as
those who smoked while pregnant. Consequently, antenatal clinic specialists are advised to
take these various observations into account when counselling women on smoking cessation