Third molar development of 705 White and 563 Black South African individuals aged between 15 and 25 years was assessed from panoramic radiographs obtained from the School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria, South Africa. The maxillary and mandibular left third molars were scored according to a ten-stage scoring system. Ancestry and sex differences in dental maturity were assessed, and the likelihood of an individual being 18 years of age was determined for each developmental stage. Statistically significant differences were noted among ancestry groups for most developmental stages, with South African Black individuals consistently maturing earlier than the White individuals. Statistically significant differences were noted among sex groups for some of the stages, mostly those near the final stages of root development. The results indicate that male third molars completed their development faster than that of females. The likelihood of an individual being 18 years of age based on the third molar development stage for the maxilla and mandible on its own was also determined. Combined likelihood results, for the maxillary and mandibular left third molars for stage H, increased the likelihood of being 18 years to 95% for all the studied ancestry and sex groups.