Prevalence of selected zoonotic diseases and risk factors at a human-wildlife-livestock interface in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Show simple item record Simpson, Gregory J.G. Quan, Vanessa Frean, John Knobel, Darryn L. Rossouw, Jennifer Weyer, Jacqueline Marcotty, Tanguy Godfroid, Jacques Blumberg, Lucille Hellen 2018-06-12T05:39:44Z 2018-06
dc.description.abstract A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tanks, called dip-tanksters (n = 64). Blood samples were tested using one PCR (Bartonella spp.) and eight antibody-ELISAs, and questionnaires were conducted to assess risk factors. Seventy-seven percent of febrilers and 98% of dip-tanksters had at least one positive test. Bartonella spp. (PCR 9.5%), spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. (IgM 24.1%), Coxiella burnetii. (IgM 2.3%), and Leptospira spp. (IgM 6.8%) were present in febrilers and could have been the cause of their fever. Dip-tanksters and febrilers had evidence of past infection to Rickettsia spp. (IgG 92.2% and 63.4%, respectively) and C. burnetii (IgG 60.9% and 37.8%, respectively). No Brucella infection or current Bartonella infection was found in the dip-tanksters, although they had higher levels of recent exposure to Leptospira spp. (IgM 21.9%) compared to the febrilers. Low levels of West Nile and Sindbis, and no Rift Valley fever virus exposure were found in either groups. The only risk factor found to be significant was attending dip-tanks in febrilers for Q fever (p = 0.007). Amoxicillin is the local standard treatment for AFI, but would not be effective for Bartonella spp. infections, SFG rickettsiosis, Q fever infections, or the viral infections. There is a need to revise AFI treatment algorithms, educate medical and veterinary staff about these pathogens, especially SFG rickettsiosis and Q fever, support disease surveillance systems, and inform the population about reducing tick and surface water contact. en_ZA
dc.description.department Production Animal Studies en_ZA
dc.description.department Veterinary Tropical Diseases en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2019-06-01
dc.description.librarian hj2018 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and by the Global Disease Detection Program. en_ZA
dc.description.uri en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Simpson, G.J.G., Quan, V., Frean, J. et al. 2018, 'Prevalence of selected zoonotic diseases and risk factors at a human-wildlife-livestock interface in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa', Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 303-310. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1530-3667 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1557-7759 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1089/vbz.2017.2158
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Mary Ann Liebert en_ZA
dc.rights © 2018 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. All rights reserved. en_ZA
dc.subject Acute febrile illness (AFI) en_ZA
dc.subject Zoonosis en_ZA
dc.subject South Africa (SA) en_ZA
dc.subject Surveillance en_ZA
dc.subject One health en_ZA
dc.subject Human-wildlife-livestock interface en_ZA
dc.subject Diagnosis en_ZA
dc.subject Leptospirosis en_ZA
dc.subject Western Kenya en_ZA
dc.subject Brucellosis en_ZA
dc.subject Rural communities en_ZA
dc.subject Northern Tanzania en_ZA
dc.subject Serological survey en_ZA
dc.subject Q fever en_ZA
dc.subject Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) en_ZA
dc.subject Hospitalized febrile patients en_ZA
dc.title Prevalence of selected zoonotic diseases and risk factors at a human-wildlife-livestock interface in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA

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