Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in childhood and represent approximately 10% of hospital-acquired infections. It is
clinically challenging to distinguish cystitis (lower UTI) from pyelonephritis (upper UTI) in those younger than two years. Most UTI
patients can however be safely managed as outpatients if diligent follow-up procedures are in place. Recurrent UTIs in children may
indicate malfunction or an anatomical defect of the urinary tract, and require specialised diagnostic studies. The proper approach
for a child with UTI remains controversial, and treatment often differs according to regional or institutional empirical guidelines.