The use of toxicokinetics and exposure studies to show that carprofen in cattle tissue could lead to secondary toxicity and death in wild vultures

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dc.contributor.author Naidoo, Vinny
dc.contributor.author Taggart, M.A.
dc.contributor.author Duncan, Norman
dc.contributor.author Wolter, K.
dc.contributor.author Chipangura, J.K. (John)
dc.contributor.author Green, R.E.
dc.contributor.author Galligan, T.H.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-05-28T09:01:58Z
dc.date.issued 2018-01
dc.description.abstract Veterinary medicines can be extremely damaging to the environment, as seen with the catastrophic declines in Gyps vulture in South Asia due to their secondary exposure to diclofenac in their primary food source. Not surprisingly, concern has been raised over other similar drugs. In this study, we evaluate the toxicity of carprofen to the Gyps vulture clade through plasma pharmacokinetics evaluations in Bos taurus cattle (their food source) and Gyps africanus (a validated model species); tissue residues in cattle; and the effect of carprofen as a secondary toxicant as both tissue-bound residue or pure drug at levels expected in cattle tissues. Carprofen residues were highest in cattle kidney (7.72 ± 2.38 mg/kg) and injection site muscle (289.05 ± 98.96 mg/kg of dimension of 5 × 5 × 5 cm). Vultures exposed to carprofen as residues in the kidney tissue or pure drug equivalents showed no toxic signs. When exposed to average injection site concentrations (64 mg/kg) one of two birds died with evidence of severe renal and liver damage. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a prolonged drug half-life of 37.75 h in the dead bird as opposed to 13.99 ± 5.61 h from healthy birds dosed intravenously at 5 mg/kg. While carprofen may generally be harmless to Gyps vultures, its high levels at the injection site in treated cattle can result in lethal exposure in foraging vultures, due to relative small area of tissue it is found therein. We thus suggest that carprofen not be used in domesticated ungulates in areas where carcasses are accessible or provided to vultures at supplementary feeding sites. en_ZA
dc.description.department Paraclinical Sciences en_ZA
dc.description.embargo 2019-01-01
dc.description.librarian hj2018 en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and the Chester Zoo. en_ZA
dc.description.uri http://www.elsevier.com/locate/chemosphere en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Naidoo, V., Taggart, M.A., Duncan, N. et al. 2018, 'The use of toxicokinetics and exposure studies to show that carprofen in cattle tissue could lead to secondary toxicity and death in wild vultures', Chemosphere, vol. 190, pp. 80-89. en_ZA
dc.identifier.issn 1879-1298 (online)
dc.identifier.issn 0045-6535 (print)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.167
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/65031
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Elsevier en_ZA
dc.rights © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Chemosphere. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. A definitive version was subsequently published in Chemosphere, vol. 190, pp. 80-89, 2017. doi : 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.167. en_ZA
dc.subject Avian toxicity en_ZA
dc.subject Zeroorder en_ZA
dc.subject Asian vulture crisis en_ZA
dc.subject Diclofenac toxicity en_ZA
dc.subject Gyps vulture en_ZA
dc.title The use of toxicokinetics and exposure studies to show that carprofen in cattle tissue could lead to secondary toxicity and death in wild vultures en_ZA
dc.type Postprint Article en_ZA


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