Ceratocystis fimbriata is a fungal plant pathogen that causes black rot on Ipomoea batatas. Based on inoculation studies on numerous tree species, the pathogen is known to be host specific. The closely related species, Ceratocystis manginecans, causes severe wilt on a broad range of tree hosts, including Mangifera indica, Acacia mangium and other leguminous tree species. The genetic factors underlying the pathogenicity and host specificity of Ceratocystis species have rarely been investigated. In this study, an F1 population of 70 recombinant progeny from a cross between C. fimbriata and C. manginecans was generated and the inheritance of various phenotypic traits was investigated. Results showed that colony colour, growth rate, asexual spore production and aggressiveness to I. batatas and A. mangium are all quantitative traits with high levels of heritability. However, conidia production and aggressiveness appeared to be regulated by a small number of genes. No correlation could be found between aggressiveness and other phenotypic traits, suggesting that these are inherited independently. This is the first study to consider genetic inheritance of pathogenicity and host specificity in Ceratocystis species and the results will contribute, in future, to the identification of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with the traits investigated.