OBJECTIVE : To determine the minimum infusion rate (MIR) of alfaxalone required to prevent purposeful movement in response to standardized stimulation while co-administered with lidocaine at three different doses by constant infusion rate infusion (CRI) in goats. STUDY DESIGN : Prospective, blinded, randomized crossover, experimental. ANIMALS : A total of eight healthy goats: four does and four wethers. METHODS: Anaesthetic induction was with lidocaine at 1 mg kg−1 [low dose of lidocaine (L-Lid)], 2 mg kg−1 [moderate dose (M-Lid)] or 4 mg kg−1 [high dose (H-Lid)] and alfaxalone at 2 mg kg−1. Anaesthetic maintenance was with alfaxalone initially at 9.6 mg kg−1 hour−1 combined with one of three lidocaine treatments: 3 mg kg−1 hour−1 (L-Lid), 6 mg kg−1 hour−1 (M-Lid) or 12 mg kg−1 hour−1 (H-Lid). The MIR of alfaxalone was determined by testing for responses to a stimulation in the form of clamping on a digit with a Vulsellum forceps every 30 minutes during lidocaine CRI. Basic cardiopulmonary parameters were measured. RESULTS : The alfaxalone MIRs were 8.64 (6.72–10.56), 6.72 (6.72–8.64) and 6.72 (6.72–6.72) mg kg−1 hour−1 during L-Lid, M-Lid and H-Lid, respectively, without any significant differences among treatments. Compared to the initial rate of 9.6 mg kg−1 hour−1, these reductions in MIR are equivalent to 10, 30 and 30%, respectively. Significant increases in heart rate (HR) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) and decreases in arterial haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and respiratory frequency (fR) immediately after induction were observed during all lidocaine treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE : Lidocaine reduces the alfaxalone MIR by up to 30% with a tendency towards a plateauing in this effect at high CRIs. Immediate oxygen supplementation might be required to prevent hypoxaemia.
Shonte, T.T.; De Kock, Henrietta Letitia(Elsevier, 2017-05)
Stinging nettles (Urtica dioica L.) have been known since ancient times as a wild source of food and a herbal medicine, but the plant remain underutilized. The aroma, flavour and colour of cooked stinging nettle leaves and ...
OBJECTIVES : This 109-week, nonrandomized, observational study of mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II) patients already
enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS) (NCT00882921), assessed the long-term immunogenicity of
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum infusion rate (MIR) of alfaxalone required to prevent purposeful
movement of the extremities in response to noxious stimulation.
STUDY DESIGN Prospective, experimental.
ANIMALS Eight ...