The steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a small antelope of the family Bovidae native to the
African continent. Urolithiasis, the formation of urinary calculi in the urinary tract, can be
caused by a variety of factors such as diet, dehydration, infection and anatomical predisposition.
Urolithiasis, with uroliths identified as magnesium calcium phosphate carbonate in
composition, was diagnosed in a hand-reared 5-month-old steenbok. Perineal urethrostomy
was performed as a component of the broad treatment regime that included fluid therapy,
antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. However, the animal died 4 days later as a result
of systemic hypoxia and energy depletion because of stress and cachexia. The challenges of
post-surgical treatment, the importance of positive energy balance in small ruminants under
stressful circumstances, as well as the role of diet of hand-reared antelope in predisposition to
urolith formation are highlighted.